Noopept ( N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) is a peptide closely related to the racetam. It carries a similar method of action, but technically is not a racetam. Noopept was fist developed in Russia and is 1000 times stronger than Piracetam in terms of potency because Noopept gets metabolized much more efficiently. In Russia, Noopept is considered a nootropic with neuroprotective properties. It is reported to improve learning ability and memory (including the initial processing of information, consolidation, and retrieval).[medical citation needed] It is also used to prevent the development of amnesia induced by electroshock. In studies Noopept helped to restore memory and other cognitive functions disturbed as a result of ischemia as well as damage due to hypoxia. The therapeutic effect of the drug in patients with organic disorders of the central nervous system appeared within 5-7 days of treatment. Also reported was the reduction or disappearance of anxiety, irritability, emotional lability and sleep disorders. It has also been observed to reverse and prevent learned helplessness neurosis in rats after long term (21 day) treatment.